I.1 The content of the document
This practical guide presents first and foremost the different objectives of Information Management System for an organizational information system; it then attempts to describe the design, the fields covered and the collection process of an Information Management System(IMS). Particular attention is placed on indicators, which are an essential element of IMS particularly for the design and monitoring of organization action plans evaluation of results. Finally, it describes the different stages of a set up and functioning of IMS while taking into account the conditions in which it is set up. Reference to the organisation, the information system consulter should carry out the following steps to construction an information management system. First of all carry out a diagnosis of present and existing situation of the organisation's Information System management, even though not exhaustive and send a reflect of the actual situation of the study.
a) To study the previous and present existing information system and management of the central administration and sub services of the college though not exhaustive and try to relate it to the actual situation. Among these aspects to be study are:
- The organisation frame work of the college and the regulation;
- The human resources available;
- The information production chain of the existing situation;
- The technology put in place;
- The different actors involved and the various external users
- The strong points and weak points
b) The consulter will also describe the need of the system at the various levels by identifying the processes and the human, material and financial resource needed.
c) He/She will then propose innovative strategies for the system in relation to the actual situation by clearly and precisely definition the objectives, priority, action plan for a certain duration say two to three years, cost and term of reference envisaged.
The variation of needs for information which is becoming complex as possible, cover all the needs and areas for information. The aim should not only be to collect, store data and process information but should also help in the management and evaluation. The information system of an establishment consists of three main aspects which are: processes, organisation and planning. These three aspects which will be discussed in order to assist manage information in an establishment.
I.1.4 Information System: The Information System is a set of organised resources (persons, data, processes, material hardware, software etc) that permit the collection of data, storage, structures and communicate the information in the form of text, sound, images, charts. It is therefore a basis of management planning and evaluation of an organisation.
During the management process, the Information System should inform the different actors and partners on the state of the organisation, its internal and external efficiency, its pedagogical and institutional operations.
Management therefore is the means of control and verification of the system in order to detect shortcomings and weaknesses, if the organisation has enough financial, physical and human resources to operate correctly and hence produce expected results. The collection of data and management involve processes, organisation planning
II General Idea of the Information System
a) An Information System which is an arrangement of persons, data, processes, presentation of information and technology of information that interact to support and ameliorate daily operation of an organisation or establishment. With the innovation of pedagogic methods, evolution in administration, economic and social aspect that has to tie with information and communication technology information has to be managed with modern technology to permit better management and flow of information in an institution. This will encourage a college to use Information and Communication in pedagogic practices and improve on the working style of the staff and development of skills in the management of information using modern technology. This system which is a form of network will facilitate exchange of information and pertinent ideas that will render the management of knowledge among those present in the organisation. The scheme of the information system that will be developed for the college will consist of internet and include all information concerning the college and its environment. The system no doubt will need good computers personnel and be capable to integrate all activities taking place at the end of each school year as well give statistics of the previous years to take new decisions.
The notion of Information System in general will comprise of tools and data which will be disposed to users, the roles and regulation as well as mode of usage and functioning that will permit the development and exploitation. It will consist of a security of data that will have limited access. At the central administration, a team of solid experience is required for designating information system, organising, analysing results and making them available to managers of the whole organisation and to the general public. This team should be composed of qualified people with multidisciplinary and complementary skills that include statistics, computers, sociology, organisation and systems management as well as a good knowledge of school management
fig. 1: General Conceptual Model of an Information System
The piloting system control the organisation and plan the strategy to use.
The Information System group a set of information, structures and mechanism of production and transmission to
The operating system fournishes the Information System with raw information to be treated by the Information System before they get to the piloting system to take decision. The quantity of data required decreases as the level of decision making goes up the information becomes more aggregate are syntheses integrating all available data.
II.1 General objectives of an information system in a Secondary School
The setting up or the strengthening of an information system is based on a simple premise,: all systems, all organizations whatever they might be, have to produce information to inform on their condition (and their characteristics),their functioning and their results. Without data, no system can function rationally, and consequently no operational decision can be taken. The education system is not an exception to this rule. Indeed, the development and the growing complexity of education systems and the needs for regulation and coordination which they require, make information one of the main elements of the administration, management and planning of education providing in this way the foundation for decision-making at every level of the system. The information management system is a sub-system of an organization or education system whose aim is to collect, store, process, analyze and disseminate information. Its purpose is one of providing the basis (operating system in charge of carrying out daily activities) and the summit (decision making system, the organ in-charge of defining objectives and strategic choices) of an organization with information and knowledge, for informed decision making. At the root of all information systems is the question of the purpose of the information to be collected: in order to manage and keep the organization or an education system
in check for example, for the definition of priorities, the planning and formulation of policies, and finally for the follow-up and evaluation of the latter. In other words, the education system is composed of a multitude of interacting actors at different levels who need to be informed on the status of the system, its achievements and performance, its needs and shortcomings. Although interacting with one another, these actors have different and varied information
II.2 Global Organisation
The IMS of the college will be organised as follows: there will be a central service which is the central administration which will disseminate information to the actors of the sub services but the central service will ask data entry at the sub service level and make relevant information available to the sub service actors. The objective is that the information should be coherent ,united and transparent. Informatics and telematics structure will also adapt to the central organisation. It will consist of a centralised server which will be connected to all computers in the various services in that computerised information will easily be exchanged among the actors, experience personnel will be placed at each sub service to manage information that is sent in and out of the service to the central actors
Fig. 2 :The Global Scheme of A College Information Flow Organisation
Fig.3 College map setting of information flow
School mapping is a method that enables the best way of setting up schools and hence the organization of educational offer in a manner that satisfies the needs defined in the plan. School mapping plays an essential role not only in the execution of a policy or an education plan, but also in its preparation. In fact, forming part of the decision and planning process, the school map integrates the spatial dimension of education systems and provides the analytical tools making it possible to identify and project in time and space the physical elements which contribute to a general educational planning effort.
II.3 Processes in college Information System
- Identification of teachers and students
- Management of teachers and non teaching staff
- Management of library
- Management of dormitory
II.3.1 Human resources
- Vice principal
- Head of Dpartments
- Discipline master
- Support staff
II.3.2 Information that is collected
- Teachers and students enrolment for each year
- Courses taught by teachers and classes
- Number of classrooms in school
- Disciplinary action levied on teachers and students
- Yearly expenditures
- Semester and yearly evaluations
II.3.3 Components of the system that will be constructed
The system will consist of
- a statistic unit that will indicate the objectives of the Information System, rules and
regulations of the college that permit the college to attain its objectives, the constraints
- An operational tool that present the priority project
- A dialogue tool to favour information exchange between partners and users
- Decision tool to follow up activities and evaluate the actions put in place.
III . Sub service organization
In the registration process of the system, data will be collected about the teacher's name, gender, grade course taught. The student's name, sex. Level and the courses he/she does.. These data will be treated and sent to the statistic unit that will be analysed and sent to the central administration for decision.
III.1 Effects and consequences at short term
The IMS at a short term may not give the expected results but at a long run, it will ameliorate the standard of information management such that information will be managed by use of modern technology to facilitate production of pertinent information such as statistics of school activities for the year and previous year to enable decision makers to take better decisions. It will also permit exchange of information between the principal, teachers, students and external partner of the college
III.2 Impact of Information System on the Organisation and work
- • improve the capacities of data collection, processing, analysis and publication of information in order that planners, administrators and managers of education have reliable and timely data at their disposal;
- • create easy to use interfaces for data entry and storage;
- • facilitate access to and manipulation of data for the three profile-types of data users: application programmer, database administrator and end users;
- • assess and shape the sharing of information in a multi-user environment;
- • maintain the coherence of definitions of data with a data and meta-data dictionary.
- • exchange information with other systems (spreadsheets, tables, end-use interfaces management systems), that is to say, the importation and exportation of data; Information tools for the preparation and monitoring of education plans
- • ensure the independence of data and applications on the logical and physical level;
- • provide results in the form of analytical reports or tables for dissemination purposes on different supports: CD Rom, diskette, paper, Internet, etc.
III.3 The Benefits
Information collected from the sub services will be efficiently managed and facilitate analysis of data collected at each level of the administration.
Information exchange will occur between the central administration and other service with in and out of the organisation. Personnel will develop Information and Communication Technology skills.
There is risk of unforeseen circumstances on the maintenance of equipment and replacement and continuous training of personnel. There may be problems from network failure.
III.5 Objectives to be attained and awaited results
The IMS should be able to create a direct flow of information from the operating system to the piloting system as shown on figure1. The awaited result is that, the activities of the organisation will automatic. The principal who is place at the central administration of the college should be able to connect to all the sub services and get information he needs from the network to assist him take decisions with out displacement. And also give instructions from his office.
IV Aim of the system
Develop a programme to enable the construction of an open system to adapt to the producer and users of information. The aim of an Information System is to help manage and administer an organisation basing itself on modern management tools.
IV.1 Priority Objectives
The priority should be to set up a minimal computerised service. The first phase will be to equip the unit in charge of the IMS at the central administration level with micro computers, identify the various operations of the various services and set up the process of information collection and treatment mechanism at the sub service level that is provide the human and material resources needed, put up a statistic service to analyse the various information from the sub service, the transfer of data should be adapted to the set up structures to telematics and connection of the different structures and administration to the network, all the processes should be accompanied by trained active personnel.
IV.2 The Processes of construction of the envisaged information system
The information system will consist of a management of content that is information collected from the various services of the college and transformed to data structure that are understandable. Consist of a management access network flow and protocol exchange that will communicate with the principal central services with other partners of the school as well as all the internal services.
The processes will involve the following:
IV.3 Analysis of the existing situation
The existing information system in college is not computerised, information is collected at each level by personnel and stored in files, these files are registered by the clerk or secretary and then sent to the person directly concerned with the information to analyse the information, it is then registered at this level and hence transferred to the hierarchy of the college that is the principal to take decision and if not also analysed and sent to the governing body. Decisions taken, take a reverse flow to get to the operating system.
The actual system consist of
- Ø Human resources that is personnel who mobilise themselves in the collection of data and treat, stored and transmit.
- Ø Different structures which acts as sources of information, organise and create a mechanism of physical network to circulate information in the college
- Ø Has a specific requirement document that indicate the various processes of the information data collection sectors for example (registration, examination, identification etc...)
IV. 5 General Processes
To get a good Information System, a collection of data should be precise and objectives should be set up in each step of the process, there should be sub project head to pilot the activities of that particular sub processes. The person should be experienced in the domain he heads to facilitate the construction work, finance for each sub processes should be well allocated for efficiency of work.
An information management system is the basis of management, planning and evaluation of an educative system. During the management processes, the Information System should inform the different actors and partners on the state of the sector, its internal and external efficiency in pedagogical and institutional operation, its performance shortcoming and needs. Because the needs for information are varied and becoming increasingly complex, a solid information system should be as complete as possible it should cover all the needs and areas to inform and not only help in the formulation of education policies, their management and their evaluation. The aim of an information system is to help manage and administer the education system by basing itself on modern management tools
V> Human resources
The actual situation lack adequate and qualified human resources at the various sub services and the central administration of the college to handle information to be sent the decision-making system. To set up an efficient system of information management therefore requires at all levels and particularly at the head services to train persons through seminars in parallel with the setting up and the development of the Information Management System for example it will be necessary to train the personnel in the maintenance and regular updating of school files, school records and class records. Training should be periodically renewed to update the training and the qualification of particular mobile administrative personnel; staff, mobility is frequent and is a constraint that should be imperatively taken into account in the setting up of IMS in a college. Specialist of data base will work as interveners between the piloting system and operating system.
V.1 .Material Resources
Material resources are important at all levels of the Information System of course, there is no reason to wait for computerization and telematics to reach the school before starting an IMS. Material for data collection which are set up for the process of information collection, treatment and storage are not modern. The tools (statistics, computers, telematics) are lacking. Tools should also evolve according to the improvement brought about in the Information System. In all qualified staff should match the level of the equipment used. Ignoring this will lead to waste of time and money. If the system has to be computerised as well as, it will need hardware such as ; a server, computers with a good capacity like one gigabyte, photocopiers, printers and scanners telephones notice board etc. software like excel, access, oracle,
V.2 Cost in putting up and maintaining an Information System
There is a financial cost which will entails finance to analyse the situation of the school, collect data, to be able to come out with an architectural plan of the system. Cost at the level of personnel who will be paid as per hours or day to construct the system and cost should also be incurred for the maintenance of the system after it has been installed , envisage also cost of training personnel who will manage the system. Cost to change equipment which could not be maintained, update software which will be used.
The construction of an Information System may take from one year and above depending on the structure of the information that makes up the system
V.3 The cost could be partition thus:
- An analyst who will paid at the end of delivery of production if the cost per day is 50.000frs then for a year according to wage per work day will be 20days per month and in 12 months we have 240*20.000 =4.800.000FRS.
- Experts at various levels of the construction process that is conception, implementation. Application and maintenance phases about 100.000 per day that gives 50.000*240=12.000.000 each expert * 4=48.000.000FRS
- 5Computers (Pentium4) each at 100.000frs= 500.000frs
- 1Photocopier= 600.000frs
- Telephones and network=3.000.000frs
- Papers 1 caton=10.000frs
V.4 Construction of the Information System